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“We wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against...” Ephesians 6:12

Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD), a secular description of some Jezebel spirit characteristics
By Wikipedia, an online encyclopedia

Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is a personality disorder[1] in which a person is excessively preoccupied with personal adequacy, power, prestige and vanity. First formulated in 1968, it was historically called megalomania, and is severe egocentrism.


Contents
1 History
2 Description
3 Symptoms
4 Causes
4.1 Theories
4.2 Splitting
4.3 Relationship to shame
5 Diagnosis
5.1 Proposed removal from DSM-5
5.2 ICD-10
5.3 Subtypes
6 Treatment
7 Correlative associations
7.1 Eating disorders
7.2 Professional attainment
8 Epidemiology
9 Cultural depictions
10 See also
11 References
12 Further reading
13 External links

History
The use of the term "narcissism" to describe excessive vanity and self-centeredness predates by many years the modern medical classification of narcissistic personality disorder. The condition was named after Narcissus, a mythological Greek youth who became infatuated with his own reflection in a lake. He did not realize at first that it was his own reflection, but when he did, he died out of grief for having fallen in love with someone that did not exist outside of himself.

The term "narcissistic personality structure" was introduced by Kernberg in 1967[4] and "narcissistic personality disorder" first proposed by Heinz Kohut in 1968.[5]

Description
Some people diagnosed with a Narcissistic Personality Disorder are characterized by unwarranted feelings of self-importance. They have a sense of entitlement and demonstrate grandiosity in their beliefs and behavior. They have a strong need for admiration, but lack feelings of empathy.[6]

Symptoms
Symptoms of this disorder, as defined by the DSM-IV-TR include:[1]
•Expects to be recognized as superior and special, without superior accomplishments
•Expects constant attention, admiration and positive reinforcement from others
•Envies others and believes others envy him/her
•Is preoccupied with thoughts and fantasies of great success, enormous attractiveness, power, intelligence
•Lacks the ability to empathize with the feelings or desires of others
•Is arrogant in attitudes and behavior
•Has expectations of special treatment that are unrealistic

Other symptoms in addition to the ones defined by DSM-IV-TR include: Is interpersonally exploitative, i.e., takes advantage of others to achieve his or her own ends, has trouble keeping healthy relationships with others, easily hurt or rejected, appears unemotional, and exaggerating special achievements and talents, setting unrealistic goals for himself/herself.[7]

Narcissistic personality disorder is characterized by dramatic, emotional behavior, and an over-inflated sense of self-importance that is in the same category as antisocial and borderline personality disorders.[8]

In addition to these symptoms, the person may display arrogance, show superiority, and seek power.[9] The symptoms of narcissistic personality disorder can be similar to the traits of individuals with strong self-esteem and confidence; differentiation occurs when the underlying psychological structures of these traits are considered pathological. Narcissists have such an elevated sense of self-worth that they value themselves as inherently better than others, when in reality they have a fragile self-esteem, cannot handlecriticism, and often try to compensate for this inner fragility by belittling or disparaging others in an attempt to validate their own self-worth. Comments and criticisms about others are vicious from sufferers of NPD, in an attempt to boost their own poor self-esteem.[10]

Another narcissist symptom is a lack of empathy. They are unable to relate, understand, and rationalize the feelings of others. Instead of behaving in a way that shows how they are feeling in the moment, they behave in the way that they feel they are expected to behave or what gives them the most attention.[7]

In children, inflated self-views and grandiose feelings, which are characteristics of narcissism, are part of the normal self-development. Children typically cannot understand the difference between their actual and their ideal self, which causes an unrealistic perception of the self. After about age 8, views of the self, both positive and negative, begin to develop based on comparisons of peers, and become more realistic. Two factors that cause self-view to remain unrealistic are dysfunctional interactions with parents that can be either excessive attention or a lack thereof. For example but not limited to, the excessive attention and lack of attention go hand in hand when a child’s parents are divorced. Usually, one is overindulgent (typically the one seeing the child less) and the other shows less affection.[7] The child either compensates for lack of attention or acts in terms of unrealistic self-perception.[11]

Causes
The cause of this disorder is unknown; however, Groopman and Cooper list the following factors identified by various researchers as possibilities:[2]
•An oversensitive temperament at birth;
•Excessive admiration that is never balanced with realistic feedback;
•Excessive praise for good behaviors or excessive criticism for bad behaviors in childhood;
•Overindulgence and overvaluation by parents, other family members, or peers;
•Being praised for perceived exceptional looks or abilities by adults;
•Severe emotional abuse in childhood;
•Unpredictable or unreliable caregiving from parents;
•Learning manipulative behaviors from parents;
•Valued by parents as a means to regulate their own self-esteem.

Some narcissistic traits are common and a normal developmental phase. When these traits are compounded by a failure of the interpersonal environment and continue into adulthood, they may intensify to the point where NPD is diagnosed.[12]

In addition, biological differences may cause narcissism as structural abnormalities in the brain have been recently documented. Specifically, researchers have noted narcissistic have less volume in gray matter in the left anterior insula, which is related to empathy (Schulze et al, 2013). [13]

Theories
Pathological narcissism occurs in a spectrum of severity. In its more extreme forms, it is narcissistic personality disorder (NPD). NPD is considered to result from a person's belief that they are flawed in a way that makes them fundamentally unacceptable to others.[14] This belief is held below the person's conscious awareness; such a person would, if questioned, typically deny thinking such a thing. To protect themselves against the intolerably painful rejection and isolation that (they imagine) would follow if others recognized their (perceived) defective nature, such people make strong attempts to control others’ views of them and behavior towards them.

Pathological narcissism can develop from an impairment in the quality of the person's relationship with their primary caregivers, usually their parents, in that the parents could not form a healthy and empathic attachment to them.[15] This results in the child's perception of himself/herself as unimportant and unconnected to others. The child typically comes to believe they have some personality defect that makes them unvalued and unwanted.[16]

To the extent that people are pathologically narcissistic, they can be controlling, blaming, self-absorbed, intolerant of others’ views, unaware of others' needs and of the effects of their behavior on others, and insistent that others see them as they wish to be seen.[17]

Narcissistic individuals use various strategies to protect the self at the expense of others. They tend to devalue, derogate and blame others, and they respond to threatening feedback with anger and hostility.[18]

People who are overly narcissistic commonly feel rejected, humiliated and threatened when criticised. To protect themselves from these dangers, they often react with disdain, rage, and/or defiance to any slight criticism, real or imagined.[19] To avoid such situations, some narcissistic people withdraw socially and may feign modesty or humility. In cases where the narcissistic personality-disordered individual feels a lack of admiration, adulation, attention and affirmation, they may also manifest a desire to be feared and be notorious (narcissistic supply).

Although individuals with NPD are often ambitious and capable, the inability to tolerate setbacks, disagreements or criticism, along with lack of empathy, make it difficult for such individuals to work cooperatively with others or to maintain long-term professional achievements.[20] With narcissistic personality disorder, the individual's self-perceived fantastic grandiosity, often coupled with a hypomanic mood, is typically not commensurate with his or her real accomplishments.

Splitting
Main article: Splitting (psychology)
People who are diagnosed with narcissistic personality disorder use splitting as a central defense mechanism. According to psychoanalyst Kernberg, "The normal tension between actual self on the one hand, and ideal object on the other, is eliminated by the building up of an inflated self-concept within which the actual self and the ideal self and ideal object are confused. At the same time, the remnants of the unacceptable images are repressed and projected onto external objects, which are devalued."[21]

The merging of the "inflated self-concept" and the "actual self" is seen in the inherent grandiosity of narcissistic personality disorder. Also inherent in this process are the defense mechanisms of devaluation, idealization and denial.[22] Other people are either manipulated as an extension of one's own self, who serve the sole role of giving "admiration and approval"[23] or they are seen as worthless (because they cannot collude with the narcissist's grandiosity).[24]

Relationship to shame
It has been suggested that narcissistic personality disorder may be related to defenses against shame.[25] Psychiatrist Glen Gabbard suggested NPD could be broken down into two subtypes.[26] He saw the "oblivious" subtype as being grandiose, arrogant, and thick-skinned, and the "hypervigilant" subtype as being easily hurt, oversensitive, and ashamed. In his view, the oblivious subtype presents for admiration, envy, and appreciation of a powerful, grandiose self that is the antithesis of a weak internalized self, which hides in shame, while the hypervigilant subtype neutralizes devaluation by seeing others as unjust abusers. Dr. Jeffrey Young, who coined the term "Schema Therapy", a technique originally developed by psychiatrist Aaron T. Beck (1979), also links NPD and shame. He sees the so-called Defectiveness Schema as a core schema of NPD, along with the Emotional Deprivation and Entitlement Schemas.[27]

Diagnosis
Proposed removal from DSM-5
The formulation of Narcissistic personality disorder in the diagnostic manual DSM-IV has been criticised for failing to describe the range and complexity of the disorder. Critics say it focuses overly on "...the narcissistic individual's external, symptomatic, or social interpersonal patterns—at the expense of ... internal complexity and individual suffering," which reduces its clinical utility.[28]

The Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group originally proposed[29] the elimination of NPD as a distinct disorder in DSM-5[30] as part of a major revamping of the diagnostic criteria for personality disorders, replacing a categorical with a dimensional approach based on the severity of dysfunctional personality trait domains.

Some clinicians objected to this, characterizing the new diagnostic system as an "unwieldy conglomeration of disparate models that cannot happily coexist" and may have limited usefulness in clinical practice.[31]

In July 2011, the Work Group came back with a major revision to their original proposal. In this revision, NPD was reinstated with dramatic changes to its definition.[32] The general move towards a dimensional (personality trait-based) view of the Personality Disorders has been maintained despite the reintroduction of NPD.

ICD-10
The World Health Organization's ICD-10 lists narcissistic personality disorder under (F60.8) Other specific personality disorders.[33]

It is a requirement of ICD-10 that a diagnosis of any specific personality disorder also satisfies a set of general personality disorder criteria.

Subtypes
Theodore Millon identified five narcissist subtypes,[3][34] however, there are few pure variants of any subtype,[34] and the subtypes are not recognized in the DSM or ICD.

Subtype

Description

Personality Traits

Unprincipled narcissist

Including antisocial features. A charlatan who is a fraudulent, exploitative, deceptive, and unscrupulous individual

Deficient conscience; unscrupulous, amoral, disloyal, fraudulent, deceptive, arrogant, exploitive; a con man and charlatan; dominating, contemptuous, vindictive.

Amorous narcissist

Including histrionic features. The Don Juan or Casanova of our times who is erotic, exhibitionist

Sexually seductive, enticing, beguiling, tantalizing; glib and clever; disinclines real intimacy; indulges hedonistic desires; bewitches and inveigles others; pathological lying and swindling.

Compensatory narcissist

Including negativistic features

Seeks to counteract or cancel out deep feelings of inferiority and lack of self-esteem; offsets deficits by creating illusions of being superior, exceptional, admirable, noteworthy; self-worth results from self-enhancement.

Elitist narcissist

Variant of “pure” pattern. Corresponds to Wilhelm Reich's "phallic narcissistic" personality type

Feels privileged and empowered by virtue of special childhood status and pseudo achievements; entitled façade bears little relation to reality; seeks favored and good life; is upwardly mobile; cultivates special status and advantages by association.

Fanatic narcissist

Including paranoid features

An individual whose self-esteem was severely arrested during childhood, who usually displays major paranoid tendencies, and who holds on to an illusion of omnipotence. These people are fighting delusions of insignificance and lost value, and trying to re-establish their self-esteem through grandiose fantasies and self-reinforcement. When unable to gain recognition or support from others, they take on the role of a heroic or worshipped person with a grandiose mission.



Other theorists have identified two types of narcissism. Those narcissists who have been diagnosed with narcissistic grandiosity express behavior "through interpersonally exploitative acts, lack of empathy, intense envy, aggression, and exhibitionism."[35] Another type of narcissism is narcissistic vulnerability. It entails (on a conscious level) "helplessness, emptiness, low self-esteem, and shame, which can be expressed in the behavior as being socially avoidant in situations where their self-presentation is not possible so they withdraw, or the approval they need/expect is not being met."[35]

Treatment
Clinical strategies are outlined by Heinz Kohut, Stephen M. Johnson and James F. Masterson, while Johns[16] discusses a continuum of severity and the kinds of therapy most effective in different cases. Schema Therapy, a form of therapy developed by Jeffrey Young that integrates several therapeutic approaches (psychodynamic, cognitive, behavioral etc.), also offers an approach for the treatment of NPD.[36] It is unusual for people to seek therapy for NPD. This is partly due to the NPD sufferers’ not believing they have a problem. Most, if not all, are unable to see the destructive damage they are causing to themselves and to others and usually only seek treatment at the insistence of relatives and friends.[7] Unconscious fears of exposure or inadequacy often cause defensive disdain of therapeutic processes.[37][38] Pattern change strategies, over a long period of time, are for the narcissist to work on increasing their ability to become more empathetic in everyday relationships. To help modify their sense of entitlement and self-centeredness schema is to help them identify how to utilize their unique talents and to help others rather than for their own personal gain. This is not going to change their self-perception of their "entitlement" feeling but more so help them empathize with others. Another type of treatment would be temperament change.[39]

Anger, rage, impulsivity and impatience can be worked on with skill training. Therapy is not one hundred percent effective because patients receive feedback poorly and defensively. Anxiety disorders and somatoma dysfunctions are prevalent but the most common would be depression. Medication has proven ineffective for treating Narcissistic Personality Disorder, but psychoanalytic psychotherapy has a higher success rate. Therapists must recognize the patient’s traits and use caution in tearing down narcissistic defenses too quickly.

Group treatment has its benefits as the effectiveness of receiving peer feedback rather than the clinician’s may be more accepted, but group therapy can also contradict itself as the patient may show "demandingness, egocentrism, social isolation and withdrawal, and socially deviant behavior." Researchers originally thought group therapy among Narcissists would fail because it was believed that group therapy required empathy that NPD patients lack. However, studies show group therapy does hold value for patients because it lets them explore boundaries, develop trust, increase self-awareness, and accept feedback.[7] Relationship therapy stresses the importance of learning and applying four basic interpersonal skills: "...effective expression, empathy, discussion and problem solving/conflict resolution."

[7] Marital/relationship therapy is most beneficial when both partners participate.[39]

Correlative associations
An extensive US survey found a high association with other disabilities, especially amongst men: mental disability, substance use, mood, anxiety disorders and other personality disorders, bipolar I disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and schizotypal and borderline personality disorders were among the associates disabilities.[40]

Eating disorders
The study of Narcissism and the Narcissistic Defenses in the Eating Disorders was concerned with the correlation between eating pathology and narcissism. Two types of narcissism were observed: core narcissism, having extremely positive (high) self-esteem combined with delusions about the level and ability of achievement; and narcissistic defenses, defenses that are triggered when self-esteem is threatened. Such narcissists maintain self-esteem by seeing themselves as misunderstood and a subject to intolerable demands.[41]

Two types of narcissistic defenses that were measured with eating pathology were "poisonous pedagogy" and "narcissistically abused". Poisonous pedagogy is one who places blame on others and is overly critical of others' inadequacies. The narcissistically abused are those who put others’ needs before theirs yet see themselves as being poorly treated. Two groups were measured: Clinical (83 women and one male with the mean age of 28.4) and Non Clinical (70 women mean age of 23.2). BMI of groups did not significantly vary. They filled out a questionnaire that was measured by eating characteristic and narcissism levels by the OMNI (O’Brien Multiphasic Narcissism Inventory) and the EDE-Q (Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire). OMNI measures pathological narcissism of narcissistic personality, poisonous pedagogy, and narcissistically abused personality. EDE-Q measures the common eating disorders: restraint, eating concern, body shape concern, and body weight concern.[41]

The basic summaries of the questionnaire’s findings were the poisonous pedagogy defenses was related to restrictive mind-set; narcissistically abused defense related to restraint, eating concern, body shape concern, and body weight concern. The only main difference between the groups was the role of core narcissism in the clinical women’s levels of eating concerns. Further research is needed to better understand the relationship approaches in both groups.[41]

Professional attainment
In 2005, Board and Fritzon published the results of a study in which they interviewed senior business managers, assessing them for the presence of personality disorder.[42]Comparing their findings to three samples of psychiatric patients, they found that their senior business managers were as likely to demonstrate narcissistic traits as the patient population, although were less physically aggressive.

Epidemiology
Lifetime prevalence is estimated at 1% in the general population and 2% to 16% in clinical populations.[2][43]

In 2009, Twenge and Campbell conducted studies suggesting that the incidence of NPD had more than doubled in the US in the prior 10 years, and that 1 in 16 of the population have experienced NPD.[44]

Cultural depictions
In the film To Die For, Nicole Kidman's character wants to appear on television at all costs, even if this involves murdering her husband. A psychiatric assessment of her character noted that she "was seen as a prototypical narcissistic person by the raters: on average, she satisfied 8 of 9 criteria for narcissistic personality disorder... had she been evaluated for personality disorders, she would receive a diagnosis of narcissistic personality disorder."[45]

Asuka Langley Soryu from Neon Genesis Evangelion was written to correspond with the DSM-criteria for Narcissistic personality disorder.[46]

See also
•Malignant narcissism
•Narcissism
•Narcissistic leadership
•Narcissistic mortification
•Narcissistic neurosis
•Narcissistic parents
•Narcissistic Personality Inventory
•Narcissistic rage and narcissistic injury
•Narcissism of small differences
•Narcissistic supply

Associated:
•Egomania
•Egotism
•Hubris
•Megalomania
•Selfishness
•Superiority complex
•True self and false self

Case study:
•Brian Blackwell

References

1.Narcissistic personality disorder – Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth edition Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) American Psychiatric Association(2000)
2.Groopman, Leonard C. M.D.; Cooper, Arnold M. M.D. (2006). "Narcissistic Personality Disorder". Personality Disorders – Narcissistic Personality Disorder. Armenian Medical Network. Retrieved 2007-02-14.
3.Millon, Theodore (1996). Disorders of Personality: DSM-IV-TM and Beyond. New York: John Wiley and Sons. p. 393. ISBN 0-471-01186-X.
4. Kernberg O, Borderline Conditions and Pathological Narcissism, 1967
5. Kohut H The Psychoanalytic Treatment of Narcissistic Personality Disorders: Outline of a Systematic Approach, 1968
6. "Glossary of Terms -Narcissistic personality disorder". Bpdresourcecenter.org. 2009-11-05. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
7.Freeman, Arthur; Angela Breitmeyer, Melissa Flint (N/A). "The Challenges in Diagnosing Narcissistic Personality Disorder: Difficult to Define, but "We Know It When We See It"". Clinical Forum N/A.
8. Narcissistic personality disorder: Symptoms – MayoClinic.com." Mayo Clinic. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Dec. 2011. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/narcissistic-personality-disorder/DS00652/DSECTION=symptoms
9. Ronnigstam E. (2011). "Narcissistic personality disorder: A clinical perspective".Journal of Psychiatric Practice 17 (2): 89-99. Ronningstam, E. (2011). "Narcissistic Personality Disorder". Journal of Psychiatric Practice 17 (2): 89–99.doi:10.1097/01.pra.0000396060.67150.40. PMID 21430487. edit
10. Narcissistic personality disorder: Symptoms – MayoClinic.com." Mayo Clinic. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Dec. 2011. <http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/narcissistic-personality-disorder/DS00652/DSECTION=symptoms
11. Development and Validation of the Childhood Narcissism Scale, SANDER THOMAES,1,2 HEDY STEGGE,1 BRAD J. BUSHMAN,3,4 TJEERT OLTHOF,1 AND JAAP DENISSEN. Department of Psychology, VU University, The Netherlands Department of Psychology, Utrecht University, The Netherlands Department of Psychology, University of Michigan Department of Communication Sciences, VU University, The Netherlands
12. Cooper AM: Narcissism in normal development, in Character Pathology. Edited by Zales M. New York, Brunner/Mazel, 1984, pp. 39–56.
13. Schulze et al (2013). Gray matter abnormalities in patients with narcissistic personality disorder. J Psychiatr Res. 2013 Oct;47(10):1363-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2013.05.017
14. Golomb, Elan PhD (1992). Trapped in the Mirror. New York: Morrow, pp. 19–20.
15. Dr. Ken Magid (1987). High risk children without a conscience. Bantam. p. 67.ISBN 0-553-05290-X. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
16.Stephen M. Johnson (1 May 1987). Humanizing the narcissistic style. W.W. Norton. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-393-70037-4. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
17. full list in DSM-IV-TR, p. 717.
18. Identifying and understanding the narcissistic personality Elsa F. Ronningstam. Oxfard University Press Inc.
19. American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 1994, p. 659.
20. Golomb, Elan PhD (1992). Trapped in the Mirror. New York: Morrow, p. 22.
21. Kernberg, O.F. (1970). Factors in the psychoanalytic treatment of narcissistic personalities. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 18:51–85, p. 56
22. Siegel, J.P. (2006). Dyadic splitting in partner relational disorders. Journal of Family Psychology, 20 (3), 418–422
23. Kernberg, O.F. (1970). Factors in the psychoanalytic treatment of narcissistic personalities. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 18:51–85, p. 52
24. Kernberg, O.F. (1970). Factors in the psychoanalytic treatment of narcissistic personalities. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 18:51–85
25. Wurmser L, Shame, the veiled companion of narcissism, in The Many Faces of Shame, edited by Nathanson DL. New York, Guilford, 1987, pp. 64–92.
26. Gabbard GO, subtypes of narcissistic personality disorder. Bull Menninger Clin 1989; 53:527–532.
27. Young, Klosko, Weishaar: Schema Therapy – A Practitioner's Guide, 2003, p. 375.
28. Ronningstam, E. (February 2010). "Narcissistic personality disorder: a current review". Curr Psychiatry Rep. 12 (1): 68–75. doi:10.1007/s11920-009-0084-z.PMID 20425313. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
29. DSM-5: Proposed Revisions: Personality and Personality Disorders. American Psychiatric Association. 2010-02-13.
30. Zanor, Charles (29 November 2010). "A Fate That Narcissists Will Hate: Being Ignored". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 November 2010.
31. Shedler, Jonathan; Aaron Beck, Peter Fonagy, Glen O. Gabbard, John Gunderson, Otto Kernberg, Robert Michels, and Drew Westen (September 2010). "Personality Disorders in DSM-5". American Journal of Psychiatry 167 (9): 1026–1028.doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2010.10050746. PMID 20826853. Retrieved 30 November 2010.
32. http://www.dsm5.org/ProposedRevisions/Pages/proposedrevision.aspx?rid=19
33. Narcissistic personality disorder – International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10)
34."Millon, Theodore, Personality Subtypes". Millon.net. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
35.Initial Construction and Validation of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory, Aaron L. Pincus, Emily B. Ansell, Claudia A. Pimentel, Nicole M. Cain, Aidan G. C. Wright, Kenneth N. Levy
36. Young, Klosko, Weishaar: Schema Therapy – A Practitioner's Guide, 2003, chapter 10, pp. 373–424.
37. Golomb, Elan PhD (1992). Trapped in the Mirror. New York: Morrow, p. 23.
38. Kohut, Heinz, (1971). The Analysis of the Self: A Systematic Approach to the Psychoanalytic Treatment of Narcissistic Personality Disorders ISBN 978-0-8236-0145-5
39.Sperry, Lynn (1999) Narcissistic Personality Disorder, Cognitive Behavior Therapy of DSM-IV Personality Disorders: Highly Effective Interventions for the Most Common Personality Disorders. (131-138). Ann Arbor, MI: Edwards Brothers.
40. Stinson FS, Dawson DA, Goldstein RB, Chou SP, Huang B, Smith SM, Ruan WJ, Pulay AJ, Saha TD, Pickering RP, Grant BF. (July 2008). "Prevalence, correlates, disability, and comorbidity of DSM-IV narcissistic personality disorder: results from the wave 2 national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions". J Clin Psychiatry 69 (7): 1033–45. doi:10.4088/JCP.v69n0701. PMC 2669224.PMID 18557663.
41.Narcissism and Narcissistic Defences in the Eating Disorders Glenn Waller, BA, MClinPsychol, DPhil, Jennie Sines, BSc3, Caroline Meyer, BSc, PhD, Anna Skelton, BSc3, Emma Foster, BSc
42. "Disorder personalities at work", Belinda Board and Katarina Fritzon, 2005, Psychology, Crime and Law, 11(1), pp.17-32. <http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10683160310001634304>
43. Megalomaniacs abound in politics/medicine/finance Business Day 2011/01/07
44. Twenge, Jean M. & Campbell, W. Keith The Narcissism Epidemic: Living in the Age of Entitlement (2009)
45. Hesse, Morten; Schliewe S, Thomsen RR (2005). "Rating of personality disorder features in popular movie characters". BMC Psychiatry (London: BioMed Central) 5: 45. doi:10.1186/1471-244X-5-45. PMC 1325244. PMID 16336663.
46. "Anime Boston 09 : The Psychology and Philosophy of Evangelion (part 6 of 8)". YouTube. 2009-06-03. Retrieved 2013-12-10.

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Jezebel spirit characteristics revealed at JezebelSpirit.com. Revelation on what the Jezebel spirit is, its traits and signs. Discerning the Jezebel spirit and overcoming it. The main and official ministry website for all the various websites of Jesus Work Ministry is at JesusWork.com. It has the official contact info and other administrative info for all the websites, and entire ministry.

Below are links for this current website’s sub-section:

[What is Jezebel Spirit?-1] [What is Jezebel Spirit?-2] [Defining Jezebel Spirit Characteristics] [Discerning Jezebel in Church] [Jezebel in the Bible] [Elijah versus Jezebel] [Wikipedia Article on Jezebel] [Jezebel Spirit & Mental Health] [Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD)] [Personality Disorders in Church] [Dealing with NPD & Other PDs] [NPD in Relationships] [Jezebel & Women in Ministry] [Back to Homepage]

  


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